History[ edit ] The native name for the caves is Borra Guhalu. Borra means hole in Odia language and guhalu means caves in Telugu language The caves were discovered in , by William King George of the Geological Survey of India. The cowherd while searching for the cow came across the caves. He found a stone inside the cave that resembled a Lingam , which he interpreted as the Lord Shiva who protected the cow. The village folk who heard the story believed it and since then they have built a small temple for Lord Shiva outside the cave. People flock to the temple for worship and the cave to get a glimpse of the Lingam. It is surmised that the udder of this cow is the source of the Gosthani Sanskrit: Cow’s udder River which originates from here, flows through Vizianagram and Visakhapatnam districts before emptying into the Bay of Bengal near Bheemunipatnam.
One of these was a series of buoys, each containing thermometers located ten feet above the water and at one foot below the water. The study found that water temperatures increased on average by 0. As of July , no similar study has been conducted on a global basis. The largest gap between any of the datasets in any year was 0. To determine whether 20th century warming is unusual, it is essential to place it in the context of longer-term climate variability.
This journey is a fascinating introduction to the people and culture of Mongolia. Get a taste of Tibet starting in the lovely Yarlung Valley, through which flow the rushing waters of the great Tsangpo. Himalaya – the name says it all. Straddling the border between Tibet and its southerly neighbor.
The Medieval Warm Period MWP until about CE displays generally moist and warm climate conditions with minor fluctuations [stability], likely in response to variations in summer monsoon intensity. The three-partite period of the Little Ice Age LIA , shows hydrologically unstable conditions between and CE with remarkably colder periods, assigned to a prolonged seasonal ice cover. The strengthened solar activity could be significantly amplified by the variations in ultraviolet radiation as well as clouds e.
The model computes a new Dalton-type sunspot minimum from approximately to and a new Dalton-type period TSI minimum from approximately to Periods with many sunspots are associated with high solar activity and warm climate periods. The conclusion is that the activity level of the Modern Maximum — is a relatively rare event, with the previous similarly high levels of solar activity observed 4 and 8 millennia ago Usoskin et al.
Nineteen grand maxima have been identified by Usoskin et al. An adjustment-free reconstruction of the solar activity over the last three millennia confirms four grand minima since the year The Maunder and the Dalton minima are associated with less solar activity and colder climate periods.
Nature Unbound VI – Centennial to millennial solar cycles
Speleothems formed from salt, sulfur and other minerals are also known. Speleothems made of pure calcium carbonate are a translucent white color, but often speleothems are colored by chemicals such as iron oxide , copper or manganese oxide , or may be brown because of mud and silt particulate inclusions.
Chemistry[ edit ] Many factors impact the shape and color of speleothem formations including the rate and direction of water seepage, the amount of acid in the water, the temperature and humidity content of a cave, air currents, the above ground climate, the amount of annual rainfall and the density of the plant cover. Most cave chemistry revolves around calcium carbonate CaCO3 , the primary mineral in limestone and dolomite.
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As some readers may recall, I found six serious errors in a well-publicised paper by Kate Marvel and other GISS climate scientists on the topic of climate sensitivity. With regards to the new Marvel et al paper, I find that: The background to the claims made by Marvel et al. First, the fact that models project more positive climate feedbacks in the future does not in any way prove that the models are correct in doing so.
Secondly, the more detailed explanation in the paper itself supports the statement with several different, mainly invalid, arguments: The evidence for argument a is very weak. The second is relevant to increases in CO2 concentration from a doubling to a quadrupling, but its findings are fully explicable by the fact that CO2 forcing increases very slightly faster than logarithmically with concentration.
In these models the pattern of SST warming changes over time after forcing is applied, and on average the feedbacks applying to the later warming pattern are more positive.
What Makes Us Human? Discovery of Neanderthal Art Is Rewriting What We Know About Ourselves
Bosna i Hercegovina From the book “Politics of Genocide” author dr. Herman During the civil wars that accompanied the dismantling of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the s, the United States, Germany, NATO, and the European Union EU all sided with the national groups seeking to break away from the unified federal state, and opposed the national group that held out for the longest time to preserve it, the Serbs; this placed the Western bloc solidly behind the Croats and Slovenes, then the Bosnian Muslims, and finally the Kosovo Albanians.
Because the wars were supported and even carried out by the NATO powers, and there was significant ethnic cleansing and ethnic killings, it goes almost without saying that not only “ethnic cleansing” but also the words “massacre” and “genocide” were quickly applied to Serb operations. The remarkable inflation of claims of Serb evil and violence and playing down of NATO clients’ violence , with fabricated “concentration camps, ” “rape camps,” and similar Nazi- and Auschwitz-like analogies, caused the onetime head of the U.
Popular perceptions pertaining to the Bosnian Muslim government have been forged by a prolific propaganda machine. A strange combination of three major spin doctors, including public relations PR firms in the employ of the Bosniacs, media pundits, and sympathetic elements of the US State Department, have managed to manipulate illusions to further Muslim goals.
Musical Talent. The Ampitheatre has over the years been the venue for musical entertainment including concerts by Chris Chameleon, recitals by the University of Pretoria’s Youth Orchestra, various choirs, distinguished local musicians and regular drumming workshops.
All data sets were normalized to regular year intervals using a linear interpolation model. The paleoclimate and storminess records were smoothed using a five-point moving average. The correlations between these paleoclimate series and the tsunami data are indicated by green circles. By contrast, the data do not fit with Holocene records of North Atlantic Oscillation NAO activity, which is in disagreement with the storm track seesaw that has been evoked between southern and northern Europe based on recent instrumental records 19 , This apparent coupling of Mediterranean and eastern North Atlantic storm activity suggests that the NAO activity was not a major driver of Holocene storminess in these areas at longer centennial to millennial time scales.
This relationship has significant implications for appropriately tailored hazard strategies in densely populated seaboard areas, in addition to more general-scale geomorphological coastal processes and dynamics. Specifically, our findings invite closer and more robust scrutiny of tsunami events, including greater proxy analysis, in future studies of coastal archives. We only considered sedimentary records of tsunamis; written historical records of tsunamis and archives of storms were not included in the database.
All proxy records covered the last years.
Yusuke Yokoyama Lab Diary
Hier die Fortsetzung der Analyse. I would like to see some more discussion about the evolution of the climate in the first millennium CE prior to the Medieval Climate Anomaly, especially with the explicit mentioning of the Roman Warm Period and the Dark Age Cold Period. Since the publication of the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report many more long proxy records with high to medium temporal resolution — reflecting either changes in temperature, precipitation or drought — have been published making it potentially feasible to place the modern global warming into a much longer time perspective than was possible at the time of the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report.
This is especially relevant since during the second millennium CE large volcanic eruptions and solar minimums have tended to coincide, making it hard to separate the influence of solar and volcanic forcing, whereas they are better separated during the first millennium CE. A better understanding of the regional to global climate during the first millennium CE is thus important in order to better understand the relative influence of volcanic and solar forcing, respectively, on decadal and longer time-scales.
Part of the Neanderthal-painted Spanish cave researchers studied. P. Saura. Uranium-thorium dating of carbonate minerals is often a better option. This well-established geochronological technique.
Several years of study have gone into this page to present a hopefully unbiased examination of the issue of global warming. This is a “big picture” analysis of the scientific studies related to global climate change. Recently, 86 evangelical leaders signed an initiative urging the adoption of legislation to reduce carbon dioxide emissions see Evangelical Leaders Join Global Warming Initiative. Are these suggestions the best way to address the global warming issue?
Rich Deem Is the world getting warmer and, if so, are the actions of mankind to blame for these temperature increases? The burning of fossil fuels converts carbon in the biomass into carbon dioxide CO2 , which is a “greenhouse” gas. This and other greenhouse gases such as methane tend to trap energy from the Sun on the earth. Many scientists have sounded the alarm that we must reduce our use of fossil fuels.
Others, including a number of prominent conservatives, have said that we have little to worry about.
What Makes Us Human? Discovery of Neanderthal Art Is Rewriting What We Know About Ourselves
Lithostratigraphy – vertical changes in lithology rock type. At first glance all Chalk exposures appear similar, and relative to other rock sequences the chalk is pretty homogenous. But there are countless marl clay bands and flint seams, many of which can be traced for hundreds of miles, that can be used as lithological boundaries.
ISLE OF LISMORE, THE DOG STONE AND CLACH THOLL J. M. Gray OS Grid Reference: NM Highlights These three coastal localities together demonstrate key features relating to the geomorphology.
There are two natural entrances to the caves and one man-made, the latter having been made in to allow easy access for visitors. History The caves are the formation of karstic cavities, their origin dating back millions of years. During the Triassic period, large quantities of calcareous mud settled on the bottom of the ancient Mediterranean sea, later transforming into the calcareous-dolomite marble which at present surround the caves.
During the Upper Miocene period, about 5 million years ago, drifts between the tectonic layers of Africa and Europe resulted in the creation of the Beticas mountains, including the Sierra Tejeda and Almijara. The abundant rain of the last 5 million years Upper Miocene and Lower Pleistocene infiltrated the fissures of marbles, stimulating its further dissolution. Huge cavities, in which the underground waters circulated, were thus formed.
Read the original article. What makes us human? A lot of people would argue it is the ability of our species to engage in complex behavior such as using language, creating art and being moral. We know that Homo sapiens have been doing this for at least 80, years. But its predecessor in parts of Eurasia, the Neanderthal, a human ancestor that became extinct around 40, years ago, has traditionally been regarded as uncultured and behaviorally inferior. Now our new study, published in Science , has challenged this view by showing that Neanderthals were able to create cave art.
Inhalt des Buches Die Klimadebatte hat gerade erst begonnen. Entgegen den Prognosen ist die Erderwärmung seit über zehn Jahren zum Stillstand gekommen.
Soil is made up of distinct horizontal layers; these layers are called horizons. They range from rich, organic upper layers humus and topsoil to underlying rocky layers subsoil, regolith and bedrock. It is now located just off the coast the continent of Antarctica and its location changes over time. Specific gravity measures the density of a material. It is a fairly abundant grayish mineral that has brilliant iridescent flashes of color usually green, blue, orange, or red after it is polished.
The crystals are transparent to translucent. Spectrolite is usually cut with a flat surface in order to highlight the brilliant flashes of color. Spectrolite has a hardness of 6 to 6. It works by determining the light waves that a stone absorbs; different stones absorb different wavelengths of light. A speleologist is a person who studies caves. Speleothems are made when calcium carbonate CaCO3 or other minerals precipitate drip out of solution from slow-moving cave water.